One other point must be emphasized about these themes. They became, almost immediately in the 19th century, the bases of new ideologies. How people reacted to the currents of democracy and industrialism stamped them conservative, liberal, or radical.
The first quarter of the 19th century was dominated by Romantic poetry. Moreover, the term, which represents the perspective of modern scholars seeking to trace the origin of later Russian works, obscures the fact that the East Slavic peoples of the Ideology and 19th century soviet union essay then called Rus are the ancestors of the Ukrainian and Belarusian as well as of the Russian people of today.
Works of the oldest Kievan period also led to modern Ukrainian and Belarusian literature. Third, the literary language established in Kievan Rus was Church Slavonicwhich, despite the gradual increase of local East Slavic variants, linked the culture to the wider community known as Slavia orthodoxa—that is, to the Eastern Orthodox South Slavs of the Balkans.
Fourth, some have questioned whether these texts can properly be called literary, if by that term is meant works that are designed to serve a primarily aesthetic function, inasmuch as these writings were generally written to serve ecclesiastic or utilitarian purposes.
The Kievan period The Kievan period so called because Kiev was the seat of the grand princes extends from the Christianization of Russia in to the conquest of Russia by the Tatars Mongols in the 13th century.
Russia received Christianity from Byzantium rather than from Rome, a fact of decisive importance for the development of Russian culture. Whereas Catholic Poland was closely linked to cultural developments in western Europe, Orthodox Russia was isolated from the West for long periods and, at times, regarded its culture as dangerous.
Conversion by Byzantium also meant that the language of the church could be the vernacular rather than, as in the West, Latin; this was another factor that worked against the absorption of Western culture. Russia was not the first Slavic culture to be converted to Christianity, and a standardized language, the Old Church Slavonic pioneered in the 9th century by Saints Cyril or Constantine and Methodiuswas already available.
Bulgariawhich had been Christianized a century earlier and had offered a home to the Cyrillo-Methodian community, became a conduit for the transmission of Greek culture, translated into Old Church Slavonic, to Russia, which in turn rapidly established its own scribal activities in copying and translating.
Thus a significant literary activity of the Kievan period consisted of translating or adapting borrowed works. It is worth stressing that the enormous prestige accorded to translating has continued to be a distinctive characteristic of Russian culture.
During the Kievan period the selection of translated foreign works circulating in Russia by and large reflected the interests of the church: Ostromirovo evangeliye The Ostromir Gospel of —57 is the oldest dated Russian manuscript.
Versions of the four Gospels, the Book of Revelationguidebooks of monastic rules, homilies, hagiographic collections, and prayers reflect the religious interests of the clerical community.
But, on the whole, translations offered a rather limited access to Greek culture aside from the ecclesiastical.
Other significant homiletic works were written by Clement of Smolensk, metropolitan of Russia from toand by St. Cyril of Turov — Both a chronicle account and two lives of Boris and Gleb, the first Russian saints, have survived to the present day.
The sanctity of these two men, who were killed by their brother Svyatopolk in a struggle for the throne, consists not in activity but in the pious passivity with which, in imitation of Christ, they accepted death. This ideal of passive acceptance of suffering was to exercise a long-lasting influence on Russian thought.
The monk Nestor c. The Kievo-Pechersky paterik The Paterik of the Kievan Caves Monasteryclosely related to hagiographycollects stories from the lives of monks, along with other religious writings. The tradition of pilgrimage literature also begins in this period. Composed between andthe Igor Tale, as it is generally known, was discovered in by Count Musin-Pushkin.
The manuscript was destroyed in the Moscow fire of ; however, a copy made for Catherine II the Great survived. Its theme is the disastrous fratricidal disunity of the Russian princes.
Eventually the grand princes of Moscow succeeded in defeating the Tatars and subduing the principalities. The exception was the lands under the rule of the Lithuanian-Polish kingdom, and this division initiated the development of separate Ukrainian and Belarusian cultural traditions.
Once the Russian lands were united, Tsar Ivan IV Ivan the Terrible; reigned —84 undertook a campaign against the remaining power of the old aristocracy boyars.The ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) was Marxism–Leninism, which occurred due to capitalism's recovery in the 19th century.
According to Lenin, imperialism was a specific stage of development of capitalism; a stage he referred to as state monopoly capitalism.
American Imperialism In the 19th and 20th Century Essay Sample “Imperialism is the policy, practice, or advocacy of extending the power and dominion of a nation especially by direct territorial acquisitions or by gaining indirect control over the political or economic life of other areas; broadly: the extension or imposition of power, authority, or .
White supremacy, beliefs and ideas purporting natural superiority of the lighter-skinned, or “white,” human races over other racial vilakamelia.com contemporary usage, the term white supremacist has been used to describe some groups espousing ultranationalist, racist, or fascist doctrines.
White supremacist groups often have relied on violence to achieve their goals. The ideology of the Communist Party of China (CPC) unlike the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, whose ideology became "rigid, unimaginative, ossified, The Marxist in China today is not a stubborn, dogmatic, and outdated 19th-century old man, but a dynamic, pro-change, young thinker.
CONTEMPORARY MANIFESTATIONS with certain contemporary forms of nationalism which have emerged or intensified in Europe and the former Soviet Union during the s.
Habsburg and Ottoman rulers to the national claims that were advanced against their rule in the 19th century. (Mayall, , p. 49). Hence, a major source of instability . The author's thesis is that the 20th century was the Jewish century because it was molded by the ideas of Marx, Freud and Kafka, all Jews in one way or another.